There are many ways to dispose of or recycle human waste. Most people use conventional bathrooms. Most toilets use five gallons every time they are flushed. Low flow ones use less than that. Grey water ones use sink water.
Decomposing toilets do not use water. They consist of buckets that people urinate and defecate in, then add saw dust to reduce smell. They empty these into a compost where the methane breaks down into fertilizer. The decomposing toilet is more often legal in rural areas, than in cities.
In most urban areas people have no choice, but to use conventional toilets. Some septic systems overflow; which is bad for the environment and can cause human health problems. Sewer cleaning chicago il, for instance, is often needed because many waste disposal systems there have problems. These range from clogged pipes, leaks, waste that backed up, and overflow. One way of unclogging drains is with blends of enzymes, and natural bacteria, which are environmentally friendly. Many human waste treatment plants have problems. The one in Seattle WA, for instance, malfunctioned a year ago, and spilled lots of un treated poop, and pee into Puget Sound.
Another problem is leaking septic tanks. Many rural areas have toilets that go into septic systems, which are underground containers that store human waste. Older septic tanks often leak. Hook Canal is a dead section of Puget Sound; and this is because of leaking septic tanks.
Some people use black water systems where waste goes underneath plants grown to eat it. Grey water toilets; and black water systems, are often used in places like New Mexico, where water is scarce. A blackwater system works most effectively if there is not excess water or if it the waste receives a pre-treatment prior to the water being removed.
Minimizing water use is a solution; as is recycling waste. There are more ways to recycle sewage, in addition to decomposing toilets. Methane digesters turn poop into gas, that is contained, and generates heat to a turbine that converts it into energy. This is renewable, and sustainable. Methane digesters are an emerging energy source.
Fracking for natural gas has a high environmental impact on the area, however methane from human, and animal waste gets around this problem, while providing energy. Many parts of Nebraska have substantially increased earthquakes due to fracking. Fracking is bad, even though it is a process of extracting natural gas which is the cleanest of the three fossil fuels. Increased use of human, and animal waste as a gas is a solution to reducing the amount of hydraulic fracking, and other fossil fuels humans use.
Solutions to conventional waste systems are being practiced. Measures to reduce leaks, and water usage are more common now. Energy, and compost from sewage are a mostly untapped resource, that will reduce reliance on fossil fuels. The best solution for environmental, and health problems related to sewage is to transform it into a resource.